The Whitening English Version


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1. How skin color is determined


2. Melanin and melanocyte in a skin tissue

  • Melanocyte takes up about 10% of basal layer on epidermis
  • The color of the skin is not determined by the quantity of the number of melanocyte, rather determined by the activation level of melanocyte.
  • Melanocyte produces and spreads melanin towards the Keratinocytes by Dendrites.
  • Uneven pigmentation occurs when melanin goes down to dermis layer. Freckles are the most common example of uneven pigmentation.
  • Melanin is reducing ROS and increasing repair of DNA damagemelanin에 대한 이미지 검색결과
  • In light-skinned adults 1.6-6.3% of the epidermis volume is occupied by melanosomes;
    In moderately pigmented adults 11-16% of the epidermis volume is occupied by melanosomes;
    In darkly pigmented adults 18-43% of the epidermis volume is occupied by melanosomes;

3. Melanin and Melanocyte 

The determination of a skin color is not dependent of the number of melanocytes, rather depends on the amount of melanin and other external factors (UV, hormones, skin damages, deceases etc.) Number of melanocytes is about 10% of basal cell in all human skin.


Melanocytes has it’s nucleus in a nasal layer and its branches are grown towards the epidermis. The melanosome and melanin are distributed to the cells in the epidermis layer through these branches and this is how skin color is determined.

4. The Formation, Types, Regulation of Melanin Pigments. 


  • Eumelanin: It is a composition of Oligomers and it has 2 types. One is brown melanin and the other is Black melanin
  • Pheomelanin: It imparts a pink to red hue depending on the concentration. Usually present in lips, nipples and reproductive organs
  • Trichochromes: They have low molecular weight, Usually present in hair and has reddish hue
  • Neuromelanin: It is a melanin distributed from the nerve terminal.
    Melanocyte role and representation of the different signaling pathways regulating melanogenesis: activation factors, receptors, second messengers, and melanogenic enzymes
  • Tyrosine: Tyrosine helps produce melanin. It is the raw ingredient of hormones and melanin. For medical purposes, it is used as antidepressant, medication for hypothermia and hypotension, appetite suppressant and to reduce body fat.
  • Glutathione: It induces pink melanin. As it induces the production of pink melanin, it gives whitening effect. For medical purposes, it is used as a strong antioxidant and anti-cancer agent. It is popularly known as 백옥 주사.

5. Causes of Hyperpigmentation 

Sun damage, Inflammations, Skin injuries and Diseases.
ex) Melasma Causes of Chlo asma :
Causes of Chlo asma
Hyper Melanin Deposit State in Dermis and Epidermis.

1. UVA & UVB : 1) Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which is increased by Destroyed DNA by UV radiation  increase secretion of a-MSH which activates melanogenesis and 2) Melanin and melanosome migrate From epidermis to dermis through destroyed Basement Membrane by UV Radiation.
2. Pregnancy Hormone : Estradiol acivates  Thyosine Kinase which is main Melanogenesis Enzyme.
3. PIH : Inflammation by injury, Scratching, activate melanogenesis and migration.
4. Drug, Cosmetics,
5. Disease : Hyper-secretion Diseases   by  Thyroid Hormon,ACTH,Cortisol and More
: Addison Ds- ACTH 생산요구가 melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)의 전구물질인 pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)를 더 생산하게 한다.
6.Familial History, Genetic Origin.

Ultraviolet raddiation;
1) UVR increases proliferation and/or recruitment of melanocytes, the number of dendrites, and the transfer of melanosomes to a supranuclear location on the keratinocytes for DNA photoprotection. – Immediate pigmentation, which appears 5-10 minutes after exposure to UVR, disappears minutes or days later, is largely due to UVA, and is not dependent on increased  melanin  synthesis, but on the oxidation of pre-existing melanin and redistribution of melanosomes to the epidermal upper layers. 
2)The expression of POMC peptides, MC1-R, and melanogenic enzymes increases in keratinocytes and melanocytes respectively. – Delayed pigmentation, which occurs 3-4 days after exposure to UVR, disappears within weeks, is due to UVA and mainly UVB radiation, and results from an increased level of epidermal melanin, particularly eumelanin, providing photoprotection.


1. Mechanism of Whitening  



2. Main whitening agents and their mechanism  


3.  The Summary of Main whitening agents  

Major Triple Treatment to Melasma
Hydroquinone + Retinoids + Topical steroids

Category I 

Inhibition or Acceleration to Transcription

Down-regulate activity of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) which is  is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates melanocyte cellular differentiation as well as the transcription of melanogenic enzymes (tyrosinase, TYRP1 and TYRP2) and melanosome structural proteins (MART-1 and PMEL17). TGF-β , via inhibition of the cAMP pathway, and GLI2 inhibit MITF transcription via separate cis-elements.

TGF,MITF에 대한 이미지 검색결과

EGF(Epidermal Growth Factors)
Epidermal Cell Ratio will increase by EGF, Because Melanocyte has no EGF Receptor.

N-acetyl glucosamine
It inhibits the glycosylation of tyrosinase.

Category II

Inhibition  to Melanogenesis .Tyrosinase

Hydroquinone :
1) Inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. HQ affects not only the formation, melanization, and degradation of melanosomes,

2) but it also affects the membranous structures of melanocytes and
3)eventually causes necrosis of whole melanocytes by DNA Damage of Melanocyte.

Tranexamic Acid 
It is a composition of Plasmin and plasminogen which suppresses activation of melanocytes and formation of prostaglandin. Eventually it suppresses the formation of melanin. It is the safest whitening agent.

Arbutin (HQ beta-D-gluconopyranoside )
Arbutin acts the inhibition of tyrosinase,which Arbutin decreases tyrosinase activity without affecting mRNA expression and inhibits 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) polymerase activity, thereby decreasing melanin formation. The action of arbutin is dose-dependent and less toxic than hydroquinone. Deoxyarbutin is a recently developed derivative of arbutin that has been produced by removing the hydroxyl groups from the molecule. This produces reversible skin-lightening by direct inhibition of tyrosinase.

Oleic acid , Linoleic acid, α-Linolenic acid 
Suppresses melanogenesis by Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteolysis of tyrosinase.

Ascorbic acid
Ascorbic acid 1) reduces DOPAquinone to DOPA and preventing free-radical production and absorption of ultraviolet radiation and 2)  interfere with melanization by interaction with copper ions at tyrosinase, 3) increases keratinocyte deferenciation by Keratolytic effect.  4) Repair DNA damage by UV Damage. 5) decreases inflammation.

Azelaic acid
Azelaic acid competitively inhibits tyrosinase.

Kojic acid
It acts by inhibiting the production of free tyrosinase; it is also a potent antioxidant.

Its mechanism of action is unclear; however, being a substrate of tyrosinase, it may act as a competitive inhibitor of the formation of melanin precursors.

NCAP is a phenolic agent which acts as an alternative substrate for tyrosinase, thus inhibiting the enzyme’s activity.

Category III

Acceleration of Epidermal Turnover

Retinoids affect multiple steps in the melanization pathway. Tretinoin promotes the rapid loss of pigment through epidermopoiesis and increased epidermal turnover decreases the contact time between keratinocytes and melanocytes. Retinoic acid (RA) suppresses UVB-induced pigmentation by reducing tyrosinase activity. The acid acts at a posttranscriptional level on tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein.

AHAs(a-hyroxy Acids)
The mechanism of its effect might be due to epidermal remodeling and accelerated desquamation specially to St.Coneum, which would result in quick pigment dispersion on pigmentary lesions. It also directly reduces melanin formation in melanocytes by tyrosinase inhibition. But They can increase photosensitivity, so have not expose to UV Linght after AHAs Procedure.

They are Glycolic acid (from sugar cane), Lactic acid (from sour milk), Malic acid (from apples),Citric acid (from citrus fruits) and Tartaric acid (from grape wine).

BHA(b-hyroxy Acids)
Salicylic acid

TCA (trichloroacetic acid), Phenol,Vitamin C, vitamin E, Thioctic acid, Retinoids,  liquiritin

Category IV

Sunscreen Agents

It is UV-absorbance spectrum (lambda max 295 nm) extends well into the solar spectrum and have significant effect in the retardation of melanogenesis, possibly by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase activity . Also It accelerate Epidermal Turn Overate.

Phytoene , Phytofluene, Lycopene
The substances in tomatoes directly absorb UV rays, inhibiting the UV rays to reach melanocytes.

Titanium dioxide (UVA,UVB ), Zinc oxide (UVA), Iron Oxide, kaolin, talc,  calcium carbonate, and magnesium oxide. and more
Bemotrizinol, Avobenzone, bisoctizole, benzophenone-3 (BZ-3, oxybenzone), and octocrylene and more.

Ecamsule (terephthalylidene dicamphor sulphonic acid), dometrizole trisiloxane, bemotrizinol,  bisoctrizole  and more

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: Octinoxate + Avobenzone + Oxybenzone + Octocrylene Add SomeWhitening Agents

Category V

Alternative method , Anti-inflammation  or Still under investigation

AntiOxidants ; Glutathione, L-Cystein,Alpha-tocopherol,Ascorbic Acid.
1) Competitive inhibit  Eumelanin (Brown, Black Color Melanin) by Augmentation to Pheomelanin(Yellow,Pink, Blonde  Color Melanin) synthesis.2)Antioxidant property affects the lipid peroxidation of membranes and increases the intracellular glutathione content.

Niacinamide(Vit B3), Soybean, Lecthin
It prevent the transfer of melanin and melanosomes from melanocytes to the keratinocytes.

Topical steroids
The inhibitory effects of corticosteroids on the synthesis of mediators like prostaglandin and leukotriene may effects on melanogenesis by suppression of cytokines such as endothelin-1 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which mediate ultraviolet (UV)-induced responses.

That have tyrosinase inhibitory as well as anti-inflammatory properties in experimental studies.

Many plant-derived flavonoid compounds have hypopigmentary effects and their roles are still under investigation. These include catechin conjugated with gallic acid (from green tea leaves), ellagic acid (from green tea, strawberry, eucalyptus etc), and aloesin(from aloe tree).Other agents known to affect melanin pigmentation and sometimes used in formulations are N-acetyl glucosaminethiotic acid (alpha-lipoic acid), gentisic acidsoybean extract, and paper mulberry extract.

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TGF: transforming growth factor, TNF: tumor necrosis factor, IL: interleukin, TF: α-tocopherol ferulate, VC-PMG: magnecium-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate.

The Other Classification

4. Understanding the Main Ingredients of Meensarang Whitening Solution.

 1.  Tranexamic Acid

It is a composition of Plasmin and plasminogen which suppresses activation of melanocytes and formation of prostaglandin. Eventually it suppresses the formation of melanin. It is the safest whitening agent. Usually orally consumed or injected.

Two Melanin Pigment Inhibiting Mechanisms of Tranexamic Acid(TXA)

Tranexamic acid (TXA) binds to the lysine receptor of plasminogen and plasmin and inhibits the secretion of hormone activated by melanocyte and arachidonic acid.
  • Image of a decreased melanin pigment after TXA taken 750mg/day for 8 weeks.  

2.  Arbutin, Hydroquinone,Mequinol

arbutin,melanin에 대한 이미지 검색결과

It inhibits the activity of tyrosinase and participates in the overall biosynthesis process of melanin, thus giving whitening effect. It is a whitening substance replacing the hydroquinone which induces albinism and carcinogen.

3.  a-Bisabolol

It is a natural α-bisabolol component extracted from Eremanthus Erythropappus in the Amazon rainforest area. It blocks melanin synthesis by blocking the activation of C-AMP in melanocytes. α-bisabolol binds with Adenyl Cyclase enzyme and inhibits the formation of c-AMP, thus suppressing the MITF(Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), which induces melanin synthesis.

4. Glutathione, L-Cystein
*P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001 versus placebo. P-values were calculated by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation (n=30).

Other Effects

Moisture, Anti-Wrinkle, Keratin

5.  Niacinamide (Vit .B3)  ,Lectin, PAR-2 Inhibitors


It helps maintaining white and clear skin as it decreases the transfer of melanin pigment from melanocyte to keratinocyte.

  1.  Increases skin ceramide and fatty acid levels. Dry, rough skin lacks ceramide. When 2% of niacinamide is applied to the skin for 4 weeks, ceramide of skin dermal layer increased by 34% and fatty acid increases by 67%.
  2. It prevents loss of skin moisture and stimulate the microcirculation of the dermis.
  3. Improves skin pigmentation and inhibits transmission of melanosome.
  4. Promotes collagen secretion to prevent skin aging and improve elasticity.
  5. Reduce sebum and improve skin trouble.
  6. When used together with vitamin C, the activity of vitamin C is increased as Niacin amide stabilizes Vitamin .
  7. Increase Glutathione Reusing by Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) : GS–SG + NADPH + H+ ——Glutathione Reductase—→ 2 GSH + NADP+.

6. Vit C (MAP, EAA)

From the formation process of melanin, it revivifies the L-DOPA -> DOPA quinone process to DOPA quinone-> L-DOPA. G. thus, it suppresses the formation of melanin and protects the skin from absorbing UV rays . It also protects the skin from oxidation of basal cells and helps recovery. However, as a cosmetic ingredient, it is easily oxidized, thus often orally consumed or taken while in Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate(MAP) state or EAA(Ethyl Ascorbyl Ether)  State and applied with Iontophoresis.

Comparison of Melanocyte concentrates by Various Vit C kinds

7.  Green tea (white tea) extract

Codecin has been widely used in cosmetics for anti-aging, whitening, soothing and cleansing – As it also has UV protection effect, anti-bacterial and antioxidant effect, it helps reduce skin trouble and it is very effective in preventing fine wrinkles and maintaining healthy skin.

– Poly-phenol, Cathechine, Vit C, Vit B

8. Licorice Ext. (Glabridin) 

Glabridin whitening mechanism에 대한 이미지 검색결과

* Ingredients
Apigenin, Ascorbic acid, Beta carotene, Beta sitosterol, Camphor, Glabridin, Glycyrrhetic acid,  Glycyrrhetinic acid,  Glycyrrhizic acid, Glycyrrhizin, Liquirtin, Selenium, Umbelliferone

* Whitening effect of licorice  
Glabridin, the main constituent of licorice extract, has an anti – inflammatory action of the skin and inhibits the melanin synthesis. Thus gives whitening effect. Glycyrrhizinic acid and Glychrrhetinic acid are also known to have anti-inflammatory effects.

9. Crocodile Oil (oleic acid , linoleic acid , α-linolenic acid)

1) It forsters the Proteolysis of tyrosinease, which is the main enzyme in melanin synthesis. Thus, preventing the formation of melanin pigment. Crocodile oil contains 54% of the constituents of oleic acid (Omega-9), linoleic acid (Omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (Omega-3) which are the main constituents of this mechanism of inhibiting melanin synthesis
2) Crocodile oil regenerates damaged cells, especially the damages from ultraviolet light, by rapidly increasing the TGF b concentration in dermal tissues.
3) Crocodile oil is excellent for removal and prevention of recurrence of age spot.

Our clinic uses crocodile oil extracted with maximized the linoleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid to more than 80% and excluded palmitic acid, stearic acid and arachidonic acid which induce melanin synthesis.

1) 멜라닌색소 합성 주요 효소인 타이로신나제를 단백 분해 하여 멜라닌 색소가 만들어지지 않게 한다. 악어오일은 이 메카니즘의 주요 성분인  oleic acid(Omega-9) , linoleic acid(Omega-6) , α-linolenic acid(Omega-3) 의 조성성분이 54%나 함유되어 있고 있어 멜라닌 색소 합성을 저해하고, 2) 악어오일이 진피 조직내의 TGF b 농도를 급속히 상승시키는 효과로  특히 자외선으로부터 손상된 세포를 재생하는 반면 3) 세포 재생 말기에 TGF-b1. SMAD 3 에 의한 상피세포와 진피세포의 과다 증식 억제에 의한 멜라닌 합성을 유도하는 MITF 억제효과.
이러한 기전은 특히 자외선에 의한 Sunburn유발 색소침착과 상처에 의한 색소침착, PIH에 최고의 효과를 보이며, 이미 형성된 착색,이상 형성된 조직을 새로운 정상적인 세포로 대치하여 광선 각화증 (검버섯)의 제거와 재발 방지에 탁월하다.
본원은 멜라닌색소 생산을 활성 시키는 팔믹산.스테아릭산,아라키도닉산을 배제하고 리놀레익산.리놀레닉산.올레익산 의 농도를 80% 이상으로 최대한 늘린 추출 정제 악어오일을 사용했다.

악어오일 전성분표 . 파란색 : 멜라닌 색소 억제. 빨간색 : 멜라닌색소 활성 성분
Linoleic 산이 멜라닌세포내에서 합성된 Tyrosinase를 ubiquitination하여 단백 분해된다.. 반면 Plamitic 산은 멜라닌 합성을 촉진하는 것을 보여준다. Scheme depicting the trafficking of tyrosinase after incubation with linoleic acid or palmitic acid After rapid processing of tyrosinase from the ER to the Golgi, linoleic acid enhances the ubiquitination of mature tyrosinase and the ubiquitinated tyrosinase could be integrated into the ERAD. In contrast, palmitic acid diminishes the proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase, leading to melanin formation in melanosomes.
The concentration of melanin in the cells decreased 4 hours after the pretreatment with tyrosinase and linolic acid . Line graphs of band intensities of immature (0 h, 70 kDa) and glycosylated (0.5–4 h, 80 kDa) tyrosinase pretreated with linoleic acid (▲) or palmitic acid (■) or untreated controls (●).


악어오일의 조직 재생 능력

This study shows that the restoration of the burnt skin with crocodile oil group is overwhelmingly fast and stable.
실험용 쥐의 화상 유발 후 회복 속도와 정도를 보여주는 연구논문 사진 으로 악어오일 군의 화상 회복이 압도적으로 빠르고 안정적임을 보여준다.

악어오일의 TGF-b1. SMAD 3 에 의한 상피세포와 진피세포의 과다 증식 억제에 의한 멜라닌 합성을 유도하는 MITF 억제효과.

Immunohistochemical detection of TGF-b1 and Smad3 in the 28-days-postburn rat skins. In the burn control group (A, C), epidermis (arrows) were positively stained by anti-TGF-b1 and anti-Smad3 antibody using AEC (3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole) as a chromogenic substrate. In the crocodile oil group (B, D), TGF-b1 and Smad3 were negatively expressed in the epidermis and low levels in the dermis. Nuclei were counterstained with hematoxylin, which appear in blue. Scale bar = 50 lm; original magnification ·40. TGF-b1 = transforming growth factor-b1.

10. Tomato extracts (Phytoene , Phytofluene, Lycopene)

The substances in tomatoes directly absorb UV rays, inhibiting the UV rays to reach melanocytes.

Phytoene , Phytofluene, Lycopene ,UV protect에 대한 이미지 검색결과

Phytoene , Phytofluene, Lycopene ,UV protect에 대한 이미지 검색결과

11. Tocopherol 

1) directly inhibits tyrosinase enzyme that synthesizes melanin pigment in melanocytes,
2) decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation.
3) increases intracellular concentration of glutathione in the cell, thus forming pink Color  Pheomelanin pigment.
4) UV-absorbance spectrum (lambda max 295 nm) extends well into the solar spectrum.

12. Aspirin (Salicylic Acid)

Prostaglandin,melanogenesis에 대한 이미지 검색결과
Melanogenic pathway in mammalian melanocyte. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK(extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinases ) signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis. Nishio T, Usami M, Awaji M, Shinohara S, Sato K Mol Cell Biochem. 2016 Jan

Hypopigmentation Functions of Salicylic Acid are 1) a Desquamating agent that penetrates and dissolves the intercellular matrix of the stratum corneum, 2) Inhibitor to MITF gene transcription and 3) MITF Degradation by Activation of ERK.

13. Ginseng and Ginsenosides

Prostaglandin,melanogenesis에 대한 이미지 검색결과
Schematic view of the effects of ginseng on melanogenesis. Black solid arrow indicates activation, black dashed arrow indicates inhibition, red upward arrow indicates increase by ginseng components, and red downward arrow indicates decrease by ginseng components. α-MSH, α-melanocyte stimulating factor; CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein; DCT, dopachrome tautomerase; DHI, 5,6-dihydroxyindole; DHICA, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid; DOPA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; EP1, prostaglandin E receptor 1; ET-1, endothelin-1; ETB , endothelin receptor type B; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL-13, interleukin 13; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinases; MC1R, melanocortin 1 receptor; MITF, micropthalmia-associated transcription factor; NO, nitric oxide; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PGF2α, prostaglandin F2α; PKA, protein kinase A; PKG, protein kinase G; PLC, phospholipase C; SCF, stem cell factor; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; TRP1, tyrosinase-related protein-1; TYR, tyrosinase.Journal of Ginseng Research Volume 39, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages 1-6, Kwangmi Kim

14.  1-Tetradecanol ( Dendropanax morbifera Lev. Extract. )

1tetradecanol significantly reduced melanin contents of B16F10 cells by inhibition of tyrosinase activity. It was only effective at the post-transcriptional level by attenuating protein expression of tyrosinase without inhibiting tyrosinase catalytic activity.


Effects of 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol on tyrosinase activity of melan-a cells. The extent of enzyme inhibition was expressed as percentage of control. Each data point presents mean ± SD from three independent experiments. 4-Ethylresorcinol and kojic acid were applied for reference.
Effects of 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol on tyrosinase activity of melan-a cells. The extent of enzyme inhibition was expressed as percentage of control. Each data point presents mean ± SD from three independent experiments. 4-Ethylresorcinol and kojic acid were applied for reference.

15. UVA,UVB  Block

SPF : is a measure of how well a sunscreen will protect skin from UVB rays

PF  (Sun protection factor) : is applied evenly at a thick dosage of 2 milligrams per square centimeter (mg/cm2).   PA+ 2hrs PA++ 4hrs PA++8hrs

What is spf sun protection factor? - Badger Balm


Physical UV Protectors: TITANIUM OXIDE (UVA,UVB,가시광선), ZINC OXIDE (UVA)
Chemical Protectors : avobenzone (UVA), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (UVB), oxybenzone, homosalate, octocrylene, macoryl, tinosorb.
Natural Protectors : Tomato .(Lycopene), Purpple Carrot (b-Carotene), Oilive Oil, Coconut Oil,

5. Hemoglobin, Carotene the Others Skin Color Agents

Hemoglobin : Oxyhemoglobin color is red color. The primary light absorbers in skin are hemoglobin and melanin. Most of scattering is attributed to collagen fibers and in pigmented skin to melanosomes. Traditionally skin redness is considered to arise due to locally elevated concentrations of hemoglobin, whereas skin pigmentation is attributed to melanin.

1) Beta-carotenemia will deposit  yellow color at tissue(30 milligrams or more — may cause skin discoloration).
2) Carotene absorbs UVB(290nm ~320nm) ,UVA (320nm ~400nm).purple carrot,uv absorption에 대한 이미지 검색결과


C. Meensarang Whitening Protocol


Mild Keratinolytic Peeling-> Outer 2~3 layer

  • Desquamation by Keratinolytic Agents
  • Inhibit MITF Transcription & Activate Degradation of MITF
  • Activate Skin Regeneration


IPL:              400nm ~1200nm :  주로 표피층 부터 진피까지 전층의 색소를 파괴.
Nd-Yag :  Q Switch Nd-Yag
532nm   :  주로 표피층 색소 병변. 붉은색 계열
1064nm :  주로 진피층 색소. 갈색 검은색 계열 색소
Long Pulse  Nd-Yag
1064nm : 주로 진피층 색소. 갈색 검은색 계열 색소
PDT LED :  583nm


이온 전하를 이용해 트라넥삼산. 알부틴 .비타민 C.등을  흡수 시키고 동시에 글루타치온 수액을 투여한다.

4. Glutathione

5. Pulse Therapy

Major Triple Treatment to Melasma
Hydroquinone + Retinoids + Topical steroids

6. Cosmetics